when the minimum temperature was above 50 F and the suspended sulfate concentration was greater than 10 ug/m3. 2. Health vol. No firm conclusions can be drawn, but the findings raise the suspicion of an effect of suspended sulfates. Environ. J. Pollut. respiratory disease. (1972) and by Thomas and McGovern (1971). Presented at American Medical Association Air Pollution Medical Research Confernece, December 5–6, San Francisco, California. Chronic bronchitis, tonsillitis, rhinitis, and influenza tended to be increased in the polluted areas, but were not as linearly related to sulfur dioxide as was the bronchitis rate. When the middle class was evaluated, a direct relation between all illnesses and pollution, as measured by sulfur dioxide and soiling index, was observed for persons 55 years old or older, but not for younger people. Health Effects. Arch. There is little evidence of any outstanding effect of sulfur oxides on the incidence of upper respiratory infections. Studies in pulmonary carcinogenesis, pp. Mills, C.A. The possibility of adapation to short-term effects of sulfur dioxide has been suggested in animal and human controlled exposure experiments, and relatively long-term adaption appears to occur in occupationally exposed people. Other facets of this study include a commendable attempt to validate the diaries by physician visits and a relatively extensive monitoring system focused in a small area. The Cost of Air Pollution Damage: Status Report. As discussed earlier, studies that compare prevalence rates of chronic respiratory disease among different areas are of value only if careful attention is paid to standardization of observers, observation methods, and the populations at risk. 11:23–26. Sulfur dioxide may trigger the onset of severe skin allergies and eye damage. Sultz, H.A., J.G.Feldman, E.R.Schlesinger, and W.E.Mosher (1970) An effect of continued exposure to air pollution on the incidence of chronic childhood allergic disease. However, although these are excellent screening devices, more sophisticated measures of pulmonary function are required to assess accurately the pathologic processes and airway sites of respiratory obstruction. 7–3 to 7–24. This small town was the location of a low-stack power plant that used high sulfur coal with no control measures. Furthermore, it should be clearly understood that the assessment of dollar costs related to air pollution health effects is a numbers game. EPA-R5–73. Health 16:406–413. A major problem in any quantitative approach to air pollution health effects is in defining a completely safe level of exposure; so-called threshold or no-effect levels. The author’s tentative explanation for the increase in peak expiratory flow rate observed in nonsmokers who had spent their childhood in urban areas is that an urban factor, perhaps air pollution, might lead to a compensatory increase in pulmonary function. Inhaled Particles III. Fletcher, C.M., C.M.Tinker, I.D.Hall, and F.E.Speizer (1968). Although these are likely to be random observations of no real significance, three possible explanations can be suggested: (1) An overwhelming effect of low temperature makes it technically difficult to detect lesser effects due to air pollution. 107:110–122. Both Buechley and Schimmel are extending their observations to more recent years, in which sulfur dioxide concentrations have been greatly reduced. Air pollution variables were highly related to mortality from respiratory and cardiac disease. In general, this was the least successful of the CHESS efforts. Phelps, H.W. An increase in the death rate of the very young has been noted in some, but not all, studies of air pollution episodes. The figures are not applicable to discussion of the relaxation of currently operative controls. One problem with the study is that mean annual sulfate concentrations were based on only 21–25 determinations in four of the five areas for which these data are available. 7:317–326. Glasser and Greenburg (1971) studied the effects of air pollution on mortality in New York City in 1960–1964 solely for the months October–March. A similar telephone survey was performed in New York in 1970–1971 (Love et al. A number of large-scale British studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution on the health of children.
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